澳门海事博物馆简介

关于澳门海事博物馆

1986年,当时澳门港务局局长苏励治海军中校提出建立海事博物馆,并选择了位于妈阁庙前地的一个古老而美丽的建筑物作为展览大楼。自1987年对外开放后,参观人数不断增加,加上各方的捐赠及新购得的藏品,使博物馆迫切需要开设一座新而宽敞的展览大楼。在1990年6月24日,一座新的展览大楼正式落成并启用,在这里可以安排展出一些新主题的展览。展览大楼的正面建筑是按船的形式来设计,座落于河口旁,位于供奉渔民的女?;ど瘢枳妫┑穆韪竺聿嗝?,并与已改为博物馆办公室之用的旧馆处于同一广场。

海事博物馆外形独特,远看好像一艘船;展馆楼高三层,以中国、葡萄牙及澳门地区航?;疃飨?,划分不同专题展区,所展示的主题不但反映了澳门的演变,还系统地阐述了中国和葡萄牙在海上交通史上的卓越成就,说明海洋对人类文化的重要性。 更多>>

Introduction

In 1986, the head of Macau Port Office at that time, Navy Lieutenant ColonelSu Lizhisuggested to establish a maritime museum, and chose an ancient and beautiful architecture in front of A-Ma Temple as the building for exhibition. The number of visitors has kept on growing since the museum was opened in 1987. Donated and newly purchased collections also required a new and spacious building for exhibition in the museum.

On 24th, June, 1990, a new exhibition building was officially completed and used, where new themes of exhibitions can be arranged. Itsfacadehas been designed as a boat next to the river mouth, at the side of A-Ma Temple where the patrongoddess (A-Ma) is worshiped.

The unique appearance of the Maritime Museum looks like a boat from the distance; there are three floors in it. It is divided to thematic display sections according to the maritime activities in China, Portugal and Macao. These display themes do not only reflecttransformation of Macau, but also systematically show the outstanding achievements of China and Portugal in the history of maritime traffic and the significance of ocean to human culture.

海上商业贸易

    商业交易

    在古时候,大规模的远洋航行活动,其目的除了是寻找新陆地、认识世界上其他不同的民情外,经济活动亦是一个重要的着眼点。 新航路的开辟,使到亚洲、非洲及欧洲之间的商品交易活动,在十五世纪后有迅速发展。此处展示的只是当时众多交换商品中几种较为有代表性的产品。

    车轮舟

    也称浆轮船,是中国古代造船技术中一项重大发明,在西元417年已出现,到了唐代(公元618-907年),既有发展也有提高,其规模不断扩大,船体增长,轮数亦增多,至在宋代甚至将车轮战船列入水军编制,当时的车轮舟约有百米多长,二十至三十个车轮,是最高峰时期。模型所展示的是一艘23轮宋代车轮战船(比例1:30)。经估算,本船包括船体体重、人员、载重等总重量约700吨。 更多>>

    大商船(黑船)

    直至1618年,来往果亚-马六甲-澳门-日本的航线所使用的大商船,其载重超过1600吨,鉴于这是当时一条举足轻重的贸易航线,货运量非常大,特别是澳门至日本一段,故此需用上体型如此庞大的船只。 在日本,当地人称这种大商船为黑船,原因是船体颜色深黑。外国人乘坐着气势十足的大黑船抵达日本的情景,深深地打动了当地的艺术家,使其创作出现别具特色的艺术品,"南蛮屏风"便是当中的代表。这些作家以生动的笔法把到达日本港口的葡萄牙商人描绘出来。

    TRADING OR COMMERCIAL SHIPS

    Until 1618 the Goa-Malaca-Japan voyage was made by the enormous ships, which were able to reach over 1600 tonnes in capacity. The size of the great ships was justified by the commercial importance of the route, Particularly the one between Macao and Japan. Called "Naus do Trato", by the Portuguese, the trading ships were known as "Black Ships" because of their dark coloured hulls. The arrival of foreigners in their imposing great ships made a deep impression on Japanese artists, particularly those who created the famous "namban" screens with their expressive portrayal of the Portuguese traders in the Japanese ports. Scale 1:30.

    香料贸易

    大部分香料在自亚洲热带地区,除了提升食物的味道外,文明古国如埃及、印度及中国等,很早便知道香料有医药、防腐及驱除异味的功能。 香料在亚洲开始经历了漫长的旅程,到达欧洲后价格变得非常昂贵。在欧洲中世纪时期,香料是上流社会的消费品。胡椒是其中一种最受欢迎的香料,其珍贵程度可以媲美黄金,在东西方的贸易中占举足轻重的地位 时至今日,香料已是非常普遍的产品,世界各地都可以购买得到。过去香料贸易不单为商人创造可观的财富,更重要的是它促成了世界地理大发现及庞大帝国的建立。

    The majority of spices were originally from Asian tropical areas. Ancient civilizations like Egypt, India and China realized that spices, being useful for flavouring food, could be employed for medicinal purposes, embalming and removing odours. The transporting of spices from Asia involved a long and arduous journey, by the time they reached Europe their cost was extremely high. In the middle ages, spices were upper-class consumer products. Pepper, one of the most popular spices at that time, was as precious as gold and played a crucial role in eastern and western trade. Today, spices are regarded as basic commodities being produced, distributed and consumed all over the world. In the past, spice trade not only allowed merchants to build significant fortunes but also, and most significantly, led to the discovery of new continents and the establishment of vast empires.

    郑和下西洋

    十五世纪初是中国海事历史最辉煌的时期,船只建造精良,加上对天文导航、气象及水文等各种航海技术的掌握,为远洋航行做好了充分准备。另一方面明朝第三代皇帝朱棣(1360-1424),有别于大部分的君主,基于稳固政权的考虑,十分重视与海外国家的关系。郑和下西洋的活动便是在这种前提下展开,将明朝影响力扩展至印度洋。此外,基于相同的考虑,亦正如明朝文献中所提到,朱棣下令的远航活动另一个冬季是寻找被她夺走帝位,据说落难到东南亚的惠帝的下落。

    1402年当朱棣夺得帝位后提升郑和为内官监太监,掌管宫中后勤。随后郑和被委任担当统领下西洋船队的重任,可见其深得朱棣的信任。公元1405年7月11日由郑和率领的明朝远洋舰队自南京出发至印度洋,二年后1407年返回完成了首次下西洋的任务,同年郑和再受命出使远航。

    从开始一直至1433年的28年间,郑和先后进行了七次远航活动,远至阿拉伯及东非海岸。其船队由大小船只200多艘及27000多名船员组成,如此规模庞大的海上势力在当时的印度洋上是独一无二的。宝船是船队中的旗舰,按照明代资料显示,其长约125米,宽50米,载重量超过八千吨。 更多>>

    The early 15th century was the most glorious chapter in China's maritime history. The mastery of shipbuilding, combined with a good grasp of astronomical navigation, meteorology and hydrography, fully prepared the Chinese for voyages to distant oceans.

    The rein of the third ruler of the Ming Dynasty, Emperor Zhu Di (1360-1424), was very different from other Chinese rulers in that he attached great importance to the development of foreign relations, in a bid to consolidate his power. It was against this backdrop that Admiral Zheng He started his Western Ocean Voyages.

    郑和统领如此大规模的舰队,经年累月地航行于大洋上,及时面对多次的军事冲突郑和均能化险为夷,完全可体现郑和的领导及军事才能,再加上其灵活外交手段最终使下西洋活动得以成功。随着郑和最后一次远洋航行活动的结束,中国的鼎盛的航海事业逐渐走向衰落。同一时期,西方国家却将关注投向海洋,开始确立远洋探险旅程的计划,发展其海上扩张活动并一直延续至多个世纪。

    They were undertaken to spread the influence of the Ming government into the Indian Ocean by conducting frequent political, diplomatic and economic activities with countries and regions in Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and Africa. Another reason behind Zhu Di's endorsement of ocean voyages was to consolidate his power. Writings from the Ming Dynasty, mention a search for Emperor Hui, from whom Zhu Di had usurped the throne and who was rumoured to have fled to South East Asia.

    葡萄牙帆船

      萨格雷斯号

      阁楼展出了10艘葡国传统渔船的模型。并设置了多媒体导览系统,透过系统可知悉各船的资料。除此之外,在此层还可观赏到一艘宏伟的海上航海学校-萨格雷斯号的模型,它是由博物馆的工场按比例制造的。葡国海军航海学校"Sagres",是用来提供给从未接触海洋或从未在帆船上进行艰辛工作之年轻海员。航海技术的学习是需要年轻海员在船上进行联系的另一种活动。

      SAGRES

      10 models of Portugal traditional fishing boats are displayed in the attic. Tourists can learn about the information of every boat through a multi-media guiding system. In addition, there is also a model of the grand maritime school at sea—SAGRES on this floor, which was built to scale in the museum factory. The Portuguese training ship “Sagres”, give young mariners their first contact with the sea and the arduous tasks on board a sailing ship. The youngsters practice the art of seamanship on the “Sagres”.

      方帆卡拉维拉船

      这种船主要在十六、十七世纪期间使用,航行范围除大西洋外,还包括东方航线,其载重量不定,介于150-200吨之间,有别于卡拉外拉船,除三角型帆外,船首桅上佩挂着四方型的帆具,因此称这种船为方帆卡拉维拉船以作区别。

      SQUARE RIGGED CARAVEL

      These small sailing vessels, also known as a "Portuguese Man-of-War", were mainly used in the 16th and 17th centuries. They were not only to be found in the Atlantic Ocean, but also on the sea routes of the Orient. Their tonnage varied between 150 and 200 tonnes and their name is derived from the fact that the sails on the bow were square. Scale:1/30.

      葡萄牙帆船

      Caravela、Nau及Galeao是葡萄牙开辟新航路时期最重要的三种帆船,他们分别属于探索船、商船、观察船体形状,帆具及船只装备的特点是辨别船只种类的重要线索。Caravela是葡人因探索非洲沿岸的需要而开发出来的航船。其最重要的特征是配用三角形帆(又称拉丁帆),这种挂在斜桁上帆能灵活转动,驾驭来自不同方向的风,适应不同的航行条件,这样在不熟悉的海面上航行更有保障。此外,Caravela体型较小,便于航行,载重量不超过八十吨。船长约20-30米,一般设三桅,小型的只有二桅。

      随着探索航程扩大,船队人员增加,Caravela的设计因适应新的情况而作调整,最后发展成新船型——Caravela Redonda。此类船设四桅,首桅配方型帆,其余三桅均配三角形帆。船的前后甲板上均建船楼,而Caravela则之间有艉楼。这种船的载重量可达150吨,几乎较Caravela大了一倍。Caravela Redonda除用于开辟新航路外,在军事上也作为舰队的支援及补给船,因此又被称为"舰队船"。在葡萄牙海军史上战绩彪炳的船种Galeao便是受其启发设计而成。Galeao是四桅重装备战船及运输船。因应作战为主的需要其设计较为修长,运货能力相对被削弱。 更多>>

      During the Portuguese Discoveries three of the most remarkable types of sailing ships were the Caravel, the Nau and the Galleon, used respectively as exploration ships, merchant ships and warships. The shape of the hull, the type of sails and the naval equipment were decisive features in identifying different types of vessels. The Caravel was created by the Portuguese in response to the needs associated with exploration along the African coast, with a lateen sail being its most prominent feature. The sails hanging from a gaff were easy to manoeuvre, and capable of sailing with winds from different directions as well as under various conditions, allowing it to navigate more safely in unknown waters. In addition, the Caravel was small in size and easy to navigate, with a capacity not exceeding 80 tonnes and the were about 20-30 metres long, usually rigged with two to three masts. Due to longer-distance voyages and the increasing number of crew members, the design of the Caravel was modified and eventually a new model was developed, the Caraval Redonda, with 4 masts, the foremast rigged with square sails and the three other masts with lateen sails. The Caravel Redonda had a castle both in the stern and bow whereas the Caravel only had a poop in the stern. It had a capacity of 150 tonnes, almost double that of the Caravel.

      澳门的炮台

      十七世纪时的澳门

      在十七世纪时的澳门已是东方一个贸易中心,特别是用日本银与中国丝绸做交换贸易。 由于澳门在经济上和军事上至重要性,而使荷兰人垂延并进行多次扰壤侵袭。对于这些攻击,均被具有防守功能的城墙和堡垒所拦阻。澳门是一个很重要的天主教地区,且仍有著名的教堂及一些地区性建筑物存在。

      澳门及其港口在历史上地位显着,故很自然成为另一重点主题。主要展品乃一座澳门十七世纪的立体模型,俯瞰当时澳门的港口及城墙。在通过灯光系统的指示下,可清楚看到各个炮台的所在之处。

      此处亦展示了一些极具考古价值的沉船残件,包括系绳器、滑车及炮架轮,于一九九三年在兴建中的澳门国际机场附近水域被发现,初步相信残件属于一艘十七世纪,在澳门沉没的欧洲船只之结构部份。

      It is impossible to affirm with accuracy, which was the first fort to be built in Macao, nor do we know the actual date of building. We do know, however, that the fortresses of S.Tiago da Barra, Bomparto and S.Francisco were in existence before 1622 and that at that time construction of the Monte fort was already under way. After the Dutch attack on the city on June 24, 1622, Macao adopted a complete defense system that covered the entire coast line in addition to the higher points of the city.

      Initially, the canons necessary to insure the safety of the city were all imported from India. After the establishment of Chunambeiro's Cannon Foundry, in 1623, there was no need for Macao to rely on external suppliers to provide its artillery needs. Under the supervision of the famous Portuguese founder Manuel Tavares Bocarro, production became more than enough to cover local needs and therefore many pieces where exported to other regions in Asia. Even today we can find, spread throughout the world, magnificent canons signed by BOCARRO.

      目前没有资料可以确定澳门哪一个炮台是最早建成的,只知道1622年以前,妈阁炮台、烧灰炉炮台及嘉思欄炮台已经存在,大三巴炮台则正在建造中。澳门自1622年6月24日受荷兰人袭击后,开始采取了一套全面覆盖沿岸,及至城市最高点的防御系统。

      最初澳门所用的大炮均需从印度输入,1623年后随着澳门铸炮厂的成立,情况才有所改变。在著名的葡萄牙铸炮师博卡罗主持下,铸炮厂不但能满足本地所需的炮具,其产品更因铸造精良而大量出口至亚洲多个地区。时至今日,由博卡罗所铸造的精美大炮仍继续在世界上发出光彩。 更多>>

      海上交通篇

        东望洋灯塔

        一八六四年建于东望洋炮台上的东望洋灯塔,是屹立在中国沿岸地区第一座发光的灯塔,于一八六五年正式开始运作。东望洋炮台位于东望洋山(松山)山顶,是澳门半岛的最高峰。 东望洋灯塔由底至顶的高度为十三点五米,其灯光射程达十六海里,设计者为澳门土生葡人加路士。维森特?罗札,最初设计只靠一盏煤油灯发光;一九七五年由转动系统改为电动马达带动,而光学组件则沿用至今。 东望洋灯塔旁设有一根旗杆,按照澳门现行的民防要求,在澳门地区受台风侵袭时,该旗杆用于悬挂台风讯号和台风灯号,为业界及海上船只提供咨询。

        Built on the Guia Fortress in 1864, the Guia Lighthouse is the oldest lighthouse on the coast of China. It came into operation in 1865. The Guia Fortress is located on top of the Guia Hill, the highest point on the Macao peninsula. The Guia Lighthouse, designed by a Macao-born Portuguess, Carlos Vicente da Rocha, is 13.5 metres high, with a light range of 16 nautical miles. The light beam was originally lit by a kerosene lamp. In 1975, the rotating system was replaced by an electric motor while the lens assembly is still in use today. Beside the lighthouse stands a mast. According to the civil defence requirements of Macao, whenever there is a typhoon, typhoon signal sign and signal light will be hoisted from the mast, providing information for related businesses and ships.

        "华士古达加马"的船头像

        华士古达加马巡洋舰的船头像或该船的复制品。此船于1904年至1910年期间曾服务于澳门。它代表着一个有伟大上将之武器的盾牌。而该上将是发现由欧洲到印度的航线,并使葡国人能达到远东。

        Figurehead from the "Vasco da Gama".

        Replica of the figurehead from the cruiser "Vasco da Gama", which served in Macau between 1904 and 1910. The figurehead is of shield bearing the coast of arms of the great navigator who discovered the sea route between Europe and India, permitting the Portuguese to reach the Far East.

        亚达马斯多(ADAMASTOR)巨人

        以往海员们用细小及单薄的船只在陌生的海洋上航行时,这像是象征着他们所感觉到的危险、困难、恐惧。 亚达马斯多"Adamastor"巡洋舰船头像的复制品,而这船于1927年至1933年间到达澳门。

        澳门号

        1931年英国建造,当时船名为""马嘉烈公主号"航行爱尔兰及苏格兰,1964年由信德船务公司购入,易名"澳门号"行走港澳线。"澳门号"船长96米,宽14米,吃水深度4.8米,重3670吨,时速29海里,于1971年8月17日,台风露丝袭港时,因停泊香港汲水门搁浅,损坏严重而停止服务。

        东山号

        前身为"西安号",在太平洋战争时,停泊于澳门,上海葡籍难民曾在此居住。1944年10月被日军拖走。第二次世界大战结束后,发现该轮停于香港。1945年开始行走港穗航线。 1947年在香港遭受火灾,约二百人死伤,经大修后,于1950年改名为"德星号"行走港澳航线,1968年改名为"东山号",继续行走港澳航线。

        蠔的养殖

        澳门以往在路氹一代曾有养蠔场,后来由于当时政府实施填海造地计划,到二十世纪八十年代末才消失。 当时蠔场的工作流程是先采蠔,后将蠔与肉分开。蠔肉座位食品出售;新鲜的或晒干的,同时亦会加工制炼成当地有名的蠔油。蠔壳用途很广,又以应用在建筑方面为主。过去人们把蠔壳磨光后铺上窗户,作为透光之用;此外亦把蠔壳烧成灰,用作筑墙及修补木船缝隙的用料。 种种原因致使澳门的养蠔业于二十多年前消失,不过目前在中国多处沿海地区养蠔业仍然活跃。

        The oyster farms in Macao were located at the junction of Taipa and Coloane. During the late eighties, the oyster cultivation industry ceased when the government started to claim the area for development. The oysters were collected and the mollusks were separated from its shells. Fresh and dried mollusks were sold as food and it was from the mollusks that the famous oyster oil was extracted. The shells had diverse purposes: in the production of mortar to be used in the construction of buildings; used as translucent blades, which were then placed on windows as glasses allowing light to pass through; and used with caulking purposes in the construction of wooden boats. Due to a set of reasons, oyster cultivation in Macao disappeared in the last few decades, however, it still exists nowadays in several coastal regions of China.

        各国帆船模型收藏

          古罗马船-CORBITA

          这种被称为"戈比达"(Corbita)的商船,是属于公元一世纪的罗马货船,主要用于地中海的谷物运输。其载重量可达一至二百公吨,船尾配有一只大桨做操纵之用。

          This type of ship from the 1st century A.D. was used to transport cereals in the Mediterranean. It carried between 100 and 200 tonnes of cargo and was controlled by two large steering oars.

          新几内亚独木舟-OUTRIGGER SAILING CANOE

          跟其他在太平洋航行的大部分船只相似,为了增加独木舟的稳定性,其船侧装上了平衡浮架。这是体现船只有划桨开始过度到使用风帆的典范。

          Similar to many other types of ships in the Pacific, this canoe had a lateral float to increase its stability. This type of vessel exemplified the beginning of the transition from the use of oars to the use of sails.

          维京船 - VIKING SHIPS

          公元八世纪至公元十一世纪,是北欧维京人称霸于海上的时期。凭着这种桨帆结合的船只,他们从斯堪的纳维亚横越大西洋,到达格陵并在那里建立殖民地。

          From the 8th century until the beginning of the 11th, the Vikings held naval supremacy in northern Europe. Ships like this, a combination of oars and sail, crossed the Atlantic from Scandinavia to Greenland where the Vikings had established a colony.

          斯里兰卡船 – SRILANKAN CATAMARAN

          这种船源于太平洋岛屿波利尼西亚地区 – 船侧的平衡浮架便是典型的特征。此种船只配有一张由布或椰子纤维造成的大帆,使其航行时速相当快。

          Originally from the Polynesian area – the typical lateral float can be seen – this type of boat had a large cloth or coconut palm fiber sail which allowed sailing at a considerable speed.

          北欧船 – COG

          典型的早期北欧船。主要用于北欧"汉撒同盟"的货运活动(汉撒同盟是北欧商人,为保障海上货运安全而组成的商业联盟)。偶尔也会用作军事运输工具。此外,COG亦是十三世纪,在欧洲地区首次装上转轴舵的船只。

          This type of ship, which sometimes served as a troop carrier, was mainly used as a cargo ship by the Hanseatic League cities in northern Europe. It was on these ships that the Axial rudder was first used in Europe in the 13th century.

          阿拉伯船 - ARABIAN DHOW

          早于中世纪(公园五世纪-十五世纪),阿拉伯人便开始使用这种船只。一般认为,船上的梯形帆源于印度,并且逐渐演变成在地中海地区非常流行的拉丁式三角帆。随后,葡萄牙人采纳了拉丁帆并应用于卡拉维拉船(Caravela)上,穿梭于大西洋。

          A ship used by the Arab peoples since the Middle Ages. It is believed that the trapezoidal sail used on these ships originated in India and the triangular shape of the foresail which was very common in the Mediterranean. The triangular sail was later adopted by the Portuguese caravels for navigating in the Atlantic.

          古埃及帆船 - EGYPTIAN SEAGOING SHIP

          虽然配有面积相当大的帆,这种船仍需要常驻大量的划船手,以便在无风的时候作为船只的动力。大约在公元前一千五百年,古埃及王朝就是用这种船组成贸易船队,从红海出发一直航行到非洲东岸,寻求黄金、黑檀木及其他珍贵资源。

          Although having good sized sails, these ships also used a number of elevated oars. Around 1500 B.C., several of these ships were navigated from the Red Sea to the East coast of Africa in search of gold, ebony and other precious goods.

          葡萄牙船 - PORTUGUESE CARAVEL

          葡萄牙人早于1440年以前,用作前往非洲沿岸进行探索活动的船只。这段时期的葡萄牙卡拉维拉(Caravela)船,其主要特征是配有成套的拉丁式(指三角形)帆具、排水量较低以便能在较浅的水域以及小海湾上航行,同时鉴于载重量的关系,大大限制了船队人员的数目,好处是不需要储备大量食物及淡水。

          A ship used in the discovery of the coast of Africa from – as far as known – 1440. The Portuguese caravel of that period had a set of lateen sails (sails of triangular shape), a light draught that allowed the ship to sail in low water near the coast or in small bays, and a small crew that allowed it to sail with the fewer provisions and less water.

          民俗文化

          妈祖阁

          位于澳门半岛最南端的妈阁庙与澳门历史起源有着密切的关系。澳门葡文名为MACAU,正是从"阿妈角"音译出来。阿妈角即现在澳门的妈阁区,古名称娘马角,传说是葡人最初到达澳门的停泊点。 妈阁庙的独特建筑,使之几乎成为一众艺术家,如博尔热、钱纳利等描绘澳门时不可缺少的主题。2005年妈阁庙同澳门一系列历史城区被联合国教科文中心列入《世界遗产名录》。

          The A-Ma temple, or Temple of Barra, is situated on the southernmost tip of the Macao Peninsula being profoundly connected with the origins of Macao. The name Macao is believed to derive from the Chinese A-Ma-Gau meaning Bay of A-Ma. The very characteristic architecture of the temple has become an almost obligatory subject for the artists who have portrayed Macao, like Borget and Chinnery among others. In 2005, the temple became one of the designated sites of the Historic Centre of Macao enlisted on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

          渔民服饰

          澳门一直是重要的渔港,渔业更曾经成为当地的基本经济活动之一。从前,我们可以从多方面,特别是服饰,很容易把渔民辨认出来。 在其日常服饰中算得上颜色鲜艳的就只有背带一般为红色,印有吉祥图案,而且是母亲送给女儿的嫁妆之一。使用背带妇女即可照顾孩子,同时偶能做家务及参与捕鱼作业。 当渔民嫁娶是,会一改平日单调朴素的装束。在这个人生的大喜日子,妇女难得的会穿上红色裙子及长衫,再配戴亲友送来的各种金饰。新郎的服饰则变化不大,同样是黑色的唐装衫裤,此外会在上身挂上一条红色印花布带。

          Macao has been a fishing port since time immemorial with fishing constituting one of its most important economic activities. Members of fishing community were easily identified in several aspects, namely through their traditional garments. The only really colored piece of garment of the daily costume of this community was the me-tai: a generally red colored cloth stamped with prosperous patterns, which was an offer made to the bride by her mother. Me-tai allowed women to carry their children on their back while they conducted their daily chores of participated in the fishing duties. This ordinary single color traditional dressing occasionally changed during wedding celebrations. During these unique occasions, women exchanged the trousers for a red skirt and a chongsam and wore the jewelry that has been offered to her. The groom's dressing would not change much: only colored by a stamped red piece of cloth worn on the waist as if it was cummerbund.

          传统民俗

          馆内有澳门及南中国其它地区的渔民传统及艺术,描述了有关渔民民俗的一些特别节日。 系统的介绍了渔民社群在传统节日中的习俗。 更多>>

          Tradition and art of fishermen in Macau and other area of south China are included. Some special festivals in fishermen's custom are also depicted.Besides, custom of fisherman community in traditional festivals are also systematically introduced.

          鱼欄文化

            鱼欄一词是广东用语也是本地区渔业批发商的称号。传统上,除鱼欄外,还有虾欄、蟹欄及咸鱼欄等。然而,自上世纪八十年代开始,许多种类型的行欄在经济?;某寤飨卤黄裙乇?。 时至今日全澳只剩下十多间鱼欄,大部分主要从事自国内入口的养殖鱼的分销,在进口来自其他地方的渔获批发上规模已较少。

            本地渔民大多情愿选择在捕捞地附近或在香港出售鱼货,只有非常少数在沿岸捕鱼的渔民,将较细小的鱼货售给国内的一些养殖渔户作饲料,而质量较好的收获则留给家人在本地的市场上出售。 尽管目前澳门只有很少鱼欄且其活动也被迫改变,是一个弱化的传统工业,却不可忘记这个行业曾在整个二十世纪,对澳门的经济起着深刻的影响。当时有超过数百间登记的鱼欄,部分还十分富裕。

            Fish Lane is the term used in Macau to designate fish wholesalers. This term derives directly from the Cantonese expression U-lane. Traditionally, besides the fresh fish lanes, there were also shrimp, crab and dry fish lanes. However, from the nineteen-eighties, following the escalating crisis in the fisheries sector, many of these companies have been forced to close. The few existing lanes were forced to convert their business and presently we can talk of the disappearance of a traditional industry. We cannot overlook, however, the extremely significant economic role played by this sector over the twentieth century. At times, Macau had over a hundred registered lanes and some of them were extremely prosperous.

            这部份的展览以生动的形式作介绍:如透过录影带介绍不同的捕鱼艺术及建造船只的镶嵌程序;透过一幅电子示意图介绍不同种类的鱼类及捕鱼区并标明了牠们在这带水域的活动范围;透过由四幅活动布景组成一出描述妈祖传说的"戏剧"。

            Vivid forms of introduction are used in this part of exhibition: E.g. different fishing arts and the inlay process in shipbuilding are introduced via video; electronic diagram shows all kinds of fish species and their home ranges in water; four moving backgrounds form a "drama" depicting the legend of A-Ma.

            参观者还可以欣赏到一些富历史价值的展品,如一艘用鲸鱼骨制成的龙舟模型,它原本被保存在本地的一座庙宇里,人们视之为圣物。于1990年,庙宇负责人将它赠予博物馆。

            visitors can also enjoy some historical exhibits. E.g. a dragon-boat model made of whale bones which used to be kept in a local temple and regarded as a sacred object was donated to the museum by the head of the temple in 1990.

            在不同的陈列点可看到各类船只,不同捕鱼艺术,服饰,船厂上使用的工具,及其它物品?;钩铝辛四现泄<鞍拿诺厍挠婷翊臣安队阋帐?,在不同的展示点可看到各类渔船、不同的捕鱼方法、渔民服饰和造船工具等。 更多>>

            We can see various boats, fishing art, apparel, tools in shipyards and other objects in display sites. Fishermen's custom and fishing art in South China Sea and Macau area are also displayed. We can see all kinds of fishing boats, fishing methods, fishermen's apparel and tools of building ships in different display sites.

            航海技术展示

              海事技术展览厅

              在最高一层主要展出有关航海技术海上交通、疏浚及其它航海方面的展品。其中包括一座模型展示东望洋灯塔对航海的重要性,它是中国沿海的第一座灯塔,直至目前,仍然是指引船只进入澳门的标记。

              On the top floor, exhibits are mainly about maritime technology, marine traffic, dredging and other maritime aspects. There is a model of the first lighthouse on Chinese coast, which shows the maritime significance of oriental lighthouses. The lighthouse is still a landmark guiding ships to enter Macau.

              台上用照准仪,在绘图台上使用的工具,用作之处两点间的角度。在(照准仪)基座上水平且与台基座平行地装有一镜。当基座放在台上时,将其像设定的方向放置,而镜则瞄准圆上某一点,这样可在外围的圆形上读到仪器基座与镜轴间垂直角的值。

              Table Alidade, Instrument used on the board for drafting topographical charts in order to indicate the angles between two points. It consists of a base (the alidade) on which a sight is mounted. When this is horizontal, its axis is parallel to the base. It is placed on the drawing board facing in the direction required. By directing the sight at a specific point on the chart, the vertical angle between the base of the instrument and the axis of the sight can be taken from the circular side.

              在这裹,一些十八至二十世纪期间的各类重要航海仪器亦有展出,当中包括八分象限仪、望远镜、尺、罗盘和各类六分象限仪。另一方面,为了以更吸引的方式向参观者解释有关潮汐、风向和水深等资料,于是采用了一个可以看到潮位自记仪操作情况和测深仪的电子摸疑展览。

              The Exhibition Hall of Maritime Technology

              Various important navigation devices from the 18th century to the 20th century are also exhibited here, including octant, telescope, ruler, compass and various types of sextants. On the other hand, tides, wind direction and water depth are explained to visitors in more interesting ways. People can see the operation of tide-level recorders and depth gauges in electronic simulated show.

              潮位自记仪,用作连续指出潮汐高度的工具。潮位自记仪基本上是一个以时钟机械带动的圆柱体,其上设有一个连着浮波的指针,在圆柱体上的圆表记录潮浪的运动。有时还设有一个连着温度计的指针,可同时记录海水的温度。潮汐表是能提供每年任何日期和时间的海潮高度值的刊物。这些刊物是由世界各国的专门机构发行。

              Marigraphs, These instruments give a constant indication of the height of the tide. They consist, basically, of a revolving clockwork drum with a pointer resting on top connected to a buoy. The oscillation of the waves is recorder on the graph paper covering the drum. Sometimes there is also a pointer connected to a thermometer which records the water temperature at the same time.

              此外,在澳门航道上还设置了一座附有浮标和灯塔系统的模型,透过不同信号位置的小灯可看到该航道的夜景。在该层还可看到有一个代表北半球的天空模型,以表现观星航行对航海的重要性。透过人手操作系统,参观者可找到不同的星宿,包括自己的星座。

              Besides, there is a model with buoys and lighthouse system on Macau sea lane. Visitors can see night scenery of the sea lane through lights in different signal positions. There is also a model of sky representing the north hemisphere on this floor, which shows the significance of guiding stars in navigation. Visitors can find constellations manually, including their own constellations.

              平板绘图仪,一种适合于测量员在野外地方进行绘图工作的仪器,它是由一个附有刻度的长形金属板和一个瞄准装置所构成。水平仪,量度两个不同地点间海拔高度差的工具。 更多>>

              Plane Table, Instrument used by surveyors for drawing plans in field work, consisting of a long metallic table with a pivoted sighting device. Level,Instrument used for measuring the difference in height between two points at different levels.

              船坞

              澳门船坞

              澳门地理特点是三面环海,故此很早便与捕鱼业及海上贸易扯上了密切关系。几个世纪以来在澳门的全景照中能看到格式大小的船只点缀着这个小岛。 随着造船及修船的需求增加,船坞亦应运而生。据资料显示,早于十九世纪,除澳门半岛外,氹仔及路环岛均建有造船厂。踏入二十世纪,随着捕鱼业的逐渐兴旺,船厂的数目也不断增加,直至七十年代达至巅峰,全澳共有四十间注册船厂运作??上О耸甏鹦幸底呦蛩ヂ?,造船订单数目显著下降。 澳门的船坞一直以来只从事木船建造,由于此地的工艺质量一向被视为高于国内,所以造价相对较高。亦因如此,近年来一些本地渔民改为在国内订造船只,但仍能吸引一些来自香港的订单。

              Macao, due to its geographical features, has long been closely related to maritime activity via / by means of (through) fishing and trade. Throughout the centuries rare are the panoramic images of the territory were different kinds of boats are not abundant. Not surprisingly, shipyards were emerging to ensure the maintenance work of the existing fleet and to match increasing demand for new vessels. In the nineteenth century there is record of the existence of several sites on the Macao peninsula as well as in the islands of Taipa and Cololane. By the twentieth century, this industry clearly reflected the increasing and decreasing movements of the local fishing community. In the seventies shipbuilding in Macao reached its peak, 40 shipyards were registered and operating. From the eighties onward there was a progressive and systematic decrease in the number of orders for new boats.

              政府船坞

              政府船坞(即现今船舶建造厂的前身),是澳门特别行政区的一个公共行政机构,它位于澳门妈阁上街约有一百年的历史,于2003年迁离,搬往筷子基船澳街,旧址内较具历史价值的建筑物则保全至今。 1909年十二月的政府船坞规章公布,规定它由一名厂长管理,并由港务局局长担任督导的工作。自此政府船坞正式成立。 2005年7月。政府船坞并入了港务局的架构,成为港务局辖下的一个从属厅级单位,更名为"船舶建造厂"。

              The Government Dockyard ( predecessor of the Shipyard ) is a public entity of the Macao Special Administrative Region ( MSAR ). Previously located on the Largo do Pagode da Barra, the Dockyard had a history of over a hundred years and was later relocated in 2003. However the buildings of more historic value on the old site are still preserved today. The Government Dockyard Regulations promulgated in December 1909 lay down rules that the Dockyard would be managed by a director and inspected by the Cirector of the Maritime Administration. The Government Dockyard was officially established at that time. In July 2005, the Government Dockyard was renamed the " Shipyard " after its integration into the Maritime Administration and became a subsidiary unit of the Administration.

              修船技术展示 - CAREENING

              在长途及危险的海洋旅程当中,脆弱的船只往往经受损坏,有时更在水线一下的船体出现破口的情况。故此船员要将船体倾侧进行修理。 这种修理方法就叫做侧船修理,以往主要都是习惯在河口一带进行,在这些地方河水一般都较为平静。 在沿海岸一代的陆地放置碑石,以往都是用来证明曾经在此有葡国航海家到过这样一些在西方仍然未为人所知晓的地方。 更多>>

              On long and hazardous ocean vovages, fragile ships were often holed below the water-line which meant the crew had to raise either the starboard or port side while the other was being repaired or calked. This operation (known as careening) was usually carried out at the mouth of a river where the water was calm. The placement of "Padroes" (stone monuments the Portuguese erected along the coastline of the territories they arrived at) bear witness to the presence of Portuguese navigators in the previously undiscovered lands of the Orinet.

              水族馆的收藏

                水族馆

                博物馆还拥有一个设有四个水族箱的水族馆,每个水族箱代表不同水底环境,参观者可欣赏到不同鱼类:第一个水族箱是唯一一个淡水的,代表河流的河床;第二个拟反映海港的水域;第三个表达的是一座珊瑚礁;而最后一个即第四个,则摹彷成一个深海水底,停着一艘沉船的遣骸。为?;せ肪?。博物馆采用了玻璃纤维来制造所有布景。该馆内还有一处是展出有关软体动物学的展品,可在那儿观赏到来自世界不同角落的贝壳。

                Aquarium

                There is also an aquarium with four aquarium tanks in the museum. Each aquarium tank represents different under-water environment. Visitors can see various fishes: The first aquarium tank is the only freshwater one, which represents riverbeds of rivers; the second tank shows water in harbor; the third one represent coral reef; the last one, the fourth, shows relics of shipwrecks at the bottom of a deep ocean. The museum used environmental-friendly material, glass fibers to build all the backgrounds. Exhibits about mollusks are also exhibited here. Visitors can see shells from everywhere of the world. more>>

                航海文化的教育普及

                游艇展会 重大赛事 专题报道